C. Rhetoric, ). Ching-genken, and . Gen, ??: ??????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? Tuan Zhuan: Gen denotes stopping or resting; -resting when it is the time to rest, and acting when it is the time to act. When one's movements and restings all take place at the proper time for them, his way (of proceeding) is brilliant and intelligent. Resting in one's resting-point is resting in one's proper place. The upper and lower (lines of the hexagram) exactly correspond to each other, but are without any interaction; hence it is said that '(the subject of the hexagram) has no consciousness of self; that when he walks in his courtyard, he does not see (any of) the persons in it; and that there will be no error.' ??: ?????????????? Xiang Zhuan: (Two trigrams representing) a mountain, one over the other, form Gen. The superior man, in accordance with this, does not go in his thoughts beyond the (duties of the) position in which he is. 2 ?: ?????????????? Gen: The first SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping his toes at rest. There will be no error; but it will be advantageous for him to be persistently firm and correct, ??: ????????? Xiang Zhuan: 'He keeps his toes at rest:' -he does not fail in what is correct (according to the idea of the figure)

?. Gen, The second SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping the calves of his legs at rest. He cannot help (the subject of the line above) whom he follows, and is dissatisfied in his mind ??: ?????????? Xiang Zhuan: 'He cannot help him whom he follows:'(he whom he follows) will not retreat to listen to him. 4 ?: ??????????????? Gen: The third NINE, undivided, shows its subject keeping his loins at rest, and separating the ribs (from the body below) The situation is perilous, and the heart glows with suppressed excitement. ??: ????????? Xiang Zhuan: 'He keeps the loins at rest:' -the danger (from his doing so) produces a glowing, heat in the heart. 5 ?: ?????????? Gen: The fourth SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping his trunk at rest. There will be no error, ??: ????????? Xiang Zhuan: 'He keeps the trunk of his body at rest:' -he keeps himself free

?. Gen, The fifth SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping his jawbones at rest, so that his words are (all) orderly. Occasion for repentance will disappear. ??: ????????? Xiang Zhuan: 'He keeps his cheek bones at rest:' -in harmony with his central position he acts correctly

W. S. Wang, The Chinese Language, Scientific American, vol.228, issue.2, pp.50-60, 1973.
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G. A. Kennedy, Translated by Charles Muller Online Edition Rhetoric in Ancient China, 32 Confucius. Analects Comparative Rhetoric. A Historical and Cross-cultural Introduction, 2007.

. Love, How faire art thou? and how pleasant art thou O my love? " Come.6.5. Another example of David: " O how sweet are thy wordes unto my throat, Psal, vol.119

V. Admiration, What is it that the greedy hunger of gold doth not urge and compel mortal men to attempt?

. Parentage, Thou ar of a noble blood, and hast thou made thy selfe a companion of most lewd men

. Countrey, To be borne in Crete and to hate the vice of lying is praise worthy. To be borne in Asia among Turkes and to favoure and imbrace Christian religion, amplifieth the vertue of that man

. Deductive, enthymematic" reasoning, uses generally accepted propositions to derive specific conclusions. The term logic evolved from logos Aristotle emphasized enthymematic reasoning as central to the process of rhetorical invention

. Brutus, Orator (a defense of Cicero's style) Cicero also left a large body of speeches and letters which would establish the outlines of Latin eloquence and style for generations to come. It was the rediscovery of Cicero's speeches (such as the defence of Archias) and letters (to Atticus) by Italians like Petrarch that, part, ignited the cultural innovations that we know as the Renaissance

H. Augustine, Augustine (354-430) was trained in rhetoric and was at one time a professor of Latin rhetoric in Milan After his conversion to Christianity, he became interested in using these "pagan" arts for spreading his religion. This new use of rhetoric is explored in the Fourth Book of his De Doctrina Christiana, which laid the foundation of what would become homiletics, the rhetoric of the sermon. Augustine begins the book by asking why "the power of eloquence, which is so efficacious in pleading either for the erroneous cause or the right

J. Walter and . Ong, Humanism" in the 1967 New Catholic Encyclopedia provides a well-informed survey of Renaissance humanism, which defined itself broadly as disfavoring medieval scholastic logic and dialectic and as favoring instead the study of classical Latin style and grammar and philology and rhetoric. (Reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts, pp.69-91, 1999.

J. Luis and V. , 1492 -1540) also helped shape the study of rhetoric in England. A Spaniard, he was appointed in 1523 to the Lectureship of Rhetoric at Oxford by Cardinal Wolsey, and was entrusted by Henry VIII to be one of the tutors of Mary. Vives fell into disfavor when Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon and left England in 1528. His best-known work was a book on education, De Disciplinis, published in 1531, and his writings on rhetoric included Rhetoricae, sive De Ratione Dicendi Libri Tres (1533), De Consultatione (1533), and a rhetoric on letter writing, 1536.

J. Milton, E. Poet, A. Rhetoricianone-of-ramus-'french-followers, and . Talaeus, Omer Talon) published his rhetoric, Institutiones Oratoriae, in 1544 This work provided a simple presentation of rhetoric that emphasized the treatment of style, and became so popular that it was mentioned in John Brinsley's (1612) Ludus literarius; or The Grammar Schoole as being the "most used in the best schooles Many other Ramist rhetorics followed in the next half-century, and by the 1600s, their approach became the primary method of teaching rhetoric in Protestant and especially Puritan circles, 1958.

J. S. Freedman, A. Philosophy, and . Europe, 1500-1700: Teaching and Texts at Schools and Universities (Ashgate, 1999) John Milton (1608-1674) wrote a textbook in logic or dialectic in Latin based on Ramus' work, which has now been translated into English by The introduction is reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts, The Complete Prose Works of John Milton with a lengthy introduction by Ong, pp.206-407144, 1982.

F. Bacon, One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment On matters of style, he proposed that the style conform to the subject matter and to the audience, that simple words be employed whenever possible, and that the style should be agreeable, Discovery and the Art of Discourse, pp.1561-1626, 1975.

. However, Firstly, in the area of 17th century French studies, the mainstay of French literary education, awareness grew that rhetoric was necessary to push further the limits of knowledge, and also provide an antidote to Structuralism and its denial of historicism in culture. This was the pioneering work of Marc Fumaroli who, building on the work of classicist and Neo-Latinist Alain Michel and French scholars such as Roger Zuber, published his famed Age de l'Eloquence (1980), was one of the founders of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric and was eventually elevated to a chair in rhetoric at the prestigious College de France. He is the editor in chief of a monumental History of Rhetoric in Modern Europe His disciples form the second generation, with rhetoricians such as Françoise Waquet, Delphine Denis both of the Sorbonne, or Philippe-Joseph Salazar[3] until recently at Derrida's College international de philosophie. Secondly, in the area of Classical studies, Latin scholars, in the wake of Alain Michel, fostered a renewal in Cicero studies, breaking away from a pure literary reading of his orations, in an attempt to embed Cicero in European ethics, while, among Greek scholars literary historian and philologist Jacques Bompaire, philologist and philosopher E. Dupréel and, somewhat later and in a more popular fashion, historian of literature Jacqueline de Romilly pioneered new studies in the Sophists and the Second Sophistic. The second generation of Classicists, often trained in philosophy as well (following Heidegger and Derrida, mainly), built on their work, with authors such as Marcel Detienne(now at Johns Hopkins) Medievalist and logician Alain De Libera Links between the two strands, the literary and the philosophical of the French school of rhetoric are strong and collaborative and bear witness to the revival of rhetoric in France, 2006.

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M. Cicero and . Tullius, De Optimo Genere Oratorum. Peithô's Web, 2009.
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L. De-arte, An Augsburg Sittenlehre Bibliotheca Augustana <http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/germanica/Chronologie/15Jh/Lehre/ler_un04.html> Hobbes, Thomas. Brief of the Art of Rhetorick. Classic Persuasion, 2009.

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J. West, The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of this work are asserted in accordance with § §.77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 This work may be reproduced without the consent of the author, in part or in whole in any manner and in any medium subject only to the two following conditions: (a) no charge shall be made for the copy containing the work or the excerpt